This research examined the effect of Thainess on employee perceptions of gender-based workplace incivility in an effort to demonstrate that an alternative viewpoint to using national culture to explain organizational phenomena, particularly when it comes to incivility. The research was conducted qualitatively with the ontological assumptions of social constructionism and pragmatic epistemology, given that employees’ conceptions of Thainess and gender-based workplace incivility are constructed differently, and such perspectives may contribute to how individuals and organizations address problems with regard to the two variables practically. Participants were employees of private companies, as the Thai public sector is too large and more entangled in politics than in management. In addition, it was anticipated that the research findings would fill in gaps in the existing literature regarding national culture and the underlying causes of gender-related incivility at work. Due to the identified missing link between the two factors and the absence of negative connotations of national culture to the occurrences of uncivil conduct.
The findings indicated that Thainess contributed to a gender-based workplace from the participants’ perspectives, as the higher level of national culture determined how employees behaved within their organizations. Thainess is strongly associated with differences in power based on seniority, gender, and social norms to which Thai nationals are expected to conform. However, it also applies to interpersonal interactions at work, even if it results in unpleasant behavior. The participants’ perspectives to gender-based workplace incivility revealed that the underlying influence of Thainess made it difficult for them to protect themselves or even speak out about their experiences. In addition, Thainess was reportedly the source of both direct and indirect civility issues. The behavioral expectations associated with seniority, compromise, and a positive atmosphere pushed victims away from gender-based negative behavior preventions or made it difficult for them to seek assistance because they were unable to speak up. From the participants’ perspectives, the issues of power disparity and respect due to seniority and gender difference also contributed to the existence of such incivility. Moreover, some organizational culture and policies were not influential to the prevention and addressal of incivility issues, particularly gender-related since such a topic is not widely supported by the power of Thainess. The policy and its communication were identified to be inadequate or even missing, leading to a sense of insecurity and uncertainty among the participants when it came to dealing with the issues.
The conclusion was drawn to demonstrate the connection between the national culture variable and gender-based workplace bullying in order to raise awareness and encourage readers to analyze the phenomenon from a different perspective. The recommendations included policies and measures to minimize the impact of cultural constraints and prevent gender-related bullying incidents, such as introducing an inclusive corporate culture and advocacy, a zero-tolerance policy, an employee complaint channel, and sensitivity training to improve employee understanding of diversity, inclusion, and respect.
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