Symptoms such as, negative mood, negative affect and poor sleep quality have been associated with variations in reproductive hormones within the menstrual cycle and combined oral contraceptive (COC) pill cycle, particularly, during the premenstrual phase. This study examined the effect of combined oral contraceptive pill phase and menstrual cycle phase on mood, affect and sleep quality in physically active women. 22 COC pill users were assigned individual time points across the COC pill cycle calculated from the first day of pill ingestion: day 4 and 20 of pill consumption and day 2 and 6 of pill withdrawal. The 15 eumenorrheic women were assigned individual time points across the menstrual cycle, calculated using a backward and forward count method from the onset of menses: early follicular, late follicular, mid-luteal and late luteal. At these time points, participants completed the Mood, Affect and Sleep Quality questionnaire, comprising of The Brunel Mood Scale, Positive and Negative Affect Schedule and Leeds Sleep Evaluation Questionnaire. Fatigue was a significantly higher on day 20 of pill consumption compared to day 2 of pill withdrawal of the COC pill cycle, p = .025. Awakening following sleep was significantly higher during the mid-luteal phase compared to early follicular phase of the menstrual cycle, p = .018. The findings provide further insight into the effect of biological mechanisms on the health and quality of life of reproductive women. Evidence from this study may help improve the health and wellbeing of individuals.
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